Special Needs Trust Issues

You want to assist your disabled family member, but don't want your financial help to disqualify him or her from a government program like social security or medicaid. So, how can you do it?

-- By K. Gabriel Heiser, Attorney


Many of us have a family member or close relative with a disability. We'd like to leave a portion of our estate to help this family member but are unsure how best to do this. Should we just make an outright gift? What about a trust? Let's take a look at some of the options.


The simplest method of assisting the family member is an outright gift, either during lifetime or via our will. However, if the disabled individual is already receiving government benefits such as SSI (Supplemental Security Income) or Medicaid, additional assets could cause them to become disqualified from those programs. On the other hand, some programs such as SSDI (Social Security Disability Insurance) are not "means tested," i.e., are not affected by the assets or income of the recipient.


Since a person may not need to receive "means-tested" benefits today but may require them in the future, the safest route is to leave them your gift inside a trust. The trustee of the trust will hold your money, invest it, and distribute it to your intended beneficiary as needed, without causing disqualification from government benefits.


Such a trust is called a Special Needs Trust or Supplemental Needs Trust, since it is designed to supplement---and not replace---government benefits. It can be created today and funded with money or other assets now. Such a trust is called an "inter vivos" trust. You can serve as the trustee or permit someone else to serve as trustee; the trust can be revocable or irrevocable; and you can retain power to change the ultimate distribution of the trust assets or not. All of these decisions affect the income tax and estate tax treatment of the trust. If you choose to make the trust irrevocable, then it will have its own federal tax i.d. number and can be set up to be taxed either to you, the trust itself, or to the beneficiary.


You can also set up the trust within your will, to be funded upon your death. Such a trust is called a "testamentary trust." In this case, you will not have a separate trust document, since the terms of the trust will be contained within the will itself.


Because the rules of each state vary as to whether the terms of the trust will cause or not cause disqualification, you really must work with an experienced estate planning or elder law attorney to draft this trust for you. The attorney will be familiar with both the federal and state programs that might be of benefit at some point to your family member, what the rules are under both federal and state benefits laws, how trusts work, the different income and estate tax ramifications of each trust option, and how best to achieve your objectives.


Examples of distributions that will not cause the beneficiary to lose or have reduced government benefits:


  • new car
  • attorney/accounting services
  • alternative health treatments
  • TV, DVD player
  • public transportation pass
  • camera
  • computer hardware, software, internet fees
  • courses and classes
  • dental work not covered by Medicaid
  • fitness equipment
  • musical instruments
  • non-food grocery items
  • physician specialists not covered by Medicaid
  • utility bills
  • physical therapy not covered by Medicaid
  • vacations


The above is by no means an exhaustive list, but is only intended to give you some idea of what your gift via trust can be spent on to make your family member's life so much better, without causing disqualification. As you can see, your gift will have wide-ranging benefits for your family member and will improve their quality of life for many years.


K. Gabriel Heiser is an attorney with over 25 years experience in elder law and estate planning. Heiser is the author of “How to Protect Your Family's Assets from Devastating Nursing Home Costs: Medicaid Secrets,” an annually updated practical guide for the layperson. For more information about this book, visit Medicaid Secrets. For more about disability planning, visit special needs trust.


Visit Special Needs Trust


New! Comments

Leave a comment about this article in the box below and share it with your Facebook friends.

Have a Medicaid Question or Comment?

We'd love to hear your questions, comments or opinions. Submit them here and other visitors can read them and comment on them. An e-mail address is not required.


The purpose of this feature is to stimulate discussion and share experiences regarding topics of interest. However, please note these submissions are not reviewed for legal accuracy. They may not apply to your situation and should not be considered legal advice. For specific legal advice you must consult with your attorney.




Medicaid Planning: Life Estate in House | Does the $13,000 Gift Tax Exemption apply to Medicaid? | Medicaid and Community Spouse Assets | Planning For Medicaid Coverage | Effect of Life Insurance Proceeds On Medicaid Eligibility | New Medicaid Annuity Rule Explained | How Can an Irrevocable Trust Be Used in Medicaid Planning? | Selling the House and Medicaid Qualification | How To Qualify For Medicaid If My House Is Worth More Than $500,000? | What is Elder Law? | Living Trust and Medicaid | What Is An Inheritor's Trust? | Should I Take Out a Loan Against My House to Pay For A Nursing Home? | Can I Give My House to My Child and Qualify for Medicaid? | Elder Care Lawyer Fees | Choosing A Nursing Home | Do I Need a Will? | Capacity To Sign a Will, Trust or Power of Attorney | Second Marriage Will Issues | What is a Common Law Marriage? | What is a Medicaid Annuity? | How does a Medicaid Annuity Work? | How To Protect My Home and Still Qualify for Medicaid | Medicaid and Spousal Will Election | Do It Yourself Medicaid Planning | Medicaid Rules and Reverse Mortgages | How Does Life Insurance Policy Ownership Affect Medicaid Eligibility? | Medicaid Estate Recovery Rules | Medicaid Estate Recovery Planning | Limitations on Medicaid Estate Recovery | Do Medicaid Plans Work? | Nursing Home Costs and Payment Options | Don't Be Too Cheap! | What Happens to My Home If I Go On Medicaid? | Can Spouse Receiving Medicaid Pay Income to Community Spouse? | Will Medicaid Exempt My Home If I Leave It? | Tips for Discussing Wills and Powers of Attorney With Your Parents | Elderly Marriage Issues | Durable Power of Attorney Medicaid Considerations |


From Special Needs Trust Issues to Medicaid Questions | Estate Planning Blog | Basics of Estate Planning | Selecting a Financial Planner | Estate Planning and Taxes | Is This Good Time to Buy a House? | Incorporate My Business | Best Low Cost Investment | Fringe Benefit Plans | Estate Planning and Charitable Giving | Health Insurance Comparisons | Best Medicare Supplement Plan | Retirement and Estate Planning | What is a Power of Attorney? | Current Estate Planning News | Estate Planning Forum | Estate Planning Books | Choosing an Estate Planning Attorney | Find a Probate Attorney | Estate Planning Questions |


Return to Home Page

About Us | Contact Us | Site Search | Terms of Use / Privacy Policy


Subscribe to
Estate Planning Hub


Your First Name


Your E-mail Address

We keep this private.



Follow the Estate Planning Blog.




--by Beth Heikkinen
Marquette, Michigan
I just want to thank you for this site. It answered my questions. I think many people that do research on the net take it for granted and when they find what they are looking for they forget "someone put time, money, etc into providing me with this information."

Thank you!


Like This Site





Visit Our Social Media Pages

Become a Fan of Estate Planning Hub on Facebook Follow EstatePlanningHub on Twitter Follow EstatePlanningHub on Google+ Subscribe EstatePlanningHub Video on YouTube

Get a PDF version of this website and its sister site here.